Digital devices, systems, and networks effect more and more parts of everyday life. However, due to the complexity of modern digital technology a variety of techniques and mechanisms are required in order to secure communication and to protect sensitive data. The science dealing with secure communication and data protection is called cryptography. This thesis bridges the gap between cryptographic constructions with strong security guarantees and efficient execution. Here, strong security mainly refers to security against adaptive adversaries. For instance, this may refer to several kinds of queries which depend on the respond to previous queries as well as corrupting machines depending on prior corruptions. Efficiency refers to improvements in speed and savings in space. Those are achieved by lower computational costs, fewer communication rounds or smaller elements like keys, ciphertexts, and digital signatures.