In this thesis, a comprehensive study was carried out to explore the design and synthesis of new polymeric dyes containing pyrazolone units as well as an innovative polyester containing high energy gem-diazide units. This study consists of two separate but interrelated parts. The first part of the research is focused on the synthesis of innovative hydrazone-pyrazolone methacrylic polymers. These new polymeric dyes show significant potential for applications in the detection of both inorganic and organic anions. In addition, thin films based on these polymers were carefully prepared and their linear optical properties were studied. Notably, this work is a pioneering effort in the field of polymers derived from rubazonic acid. In this context, the synthesis of a rubazonic acid homopolymer was achieved by Glaser coupling, and polymers design using decarbonylative polyaddition, nucleophilic substitution methods, and successful creation of rubazonic acid based on polyurethanes using condensation reactions. In addition, a comprehensive optical characterization of rubazonic acid was carried out. The second part of the study is devoted to the research of an innovative polyester containing high-energy gem-diazide units. In this work, a detailed study was carried out for the synthesis of polyesters containing gem-diazide units. Two different synthetic routes were investigated, including a careful analysis of the reaction sequences. Subsequently, the most effective approach for obtaining the longest and soluble polymers was determined and selected. By combining these two aspects of research, a significant contribution is expected to the development of polymeric materials with a variety of applications, ranging from sensor technologies to energy-related materials.